"Szóbeli feladatok angol felsőfokú nyelvvizsgára" könyv?
Current trends in family life
Many people think nowadays that marriage is becoming obsolete, and indeed, marriages rate continue to slowly decline in developed countries. Childbearing rates are also declining worldwide. It seems that the institution of marriage is much less relevant in some parts of the world than it used to be. Marriage is becoming more of an option for adults, rather than a necessity for the survival of adults and children.
Although marriage is in decline, unmarried cohabitation is on the rise. For some people, it is a pre-marital experience, usually a childless phase where the strength of the relationship is tested before committing to marriage. For others, cohabitation is a real alternative to marriage. In Sweden and Denmark, for example, marriage and cohabitation have become indistinguishable with children being born and reared within both. There, cohabitation is quickly becoming the norm. There are hardly any government benefits favoring marriages or taboos against unmarried cohabitation within religious or cultural institutions.
Adults cohabit mainly because they don’t see the point of marriage. Some people may look for more flexibility or freedom in their relationships, or they may feel that they do not have sufficient financial or emotional resources to marry. They may also perceive marriage as a risky undertaking or simply unnecessary once they are already cohabiting. According to psychologists, cohabiters are less likely to support each other emotionally because they hold more positive ideas about divorce and more negative attitudes about marriage in general.
At the same time, we are experiencing an increase in single-parent families as divorce is becoming more common. Globally, one-quarter to one-third of all families are headed by single mothers. Coping with a breakup or a divorce is always painful. Every divorce will affect the children involved and many times the initial reactions are shock, sadness, frustration, anger, or worry. Some children may suffer for many years from psychological and social difficulties within the post-divorce family. But if all goes well, kids may come out of it better, being able to cope with stress, and becoming more flexible and tolerant young adults.
More and more relationships break up, new relationships are established, and the result is a growing number of patchwork families. A patchwork family is a new family made up from the remnants of divorced families. In a patchwork family, each person is like an individual patch in a quilt, and that patch stands for a person’s unique self and life story. When someone enters the family - by birth, adoption, or due to divorce and remarriage - the individual patch (the person) should not be altered. Instead, attention should be focused on how the patches (the family members) are joined together to form a new family.
Violence against women is one of the most widespread violations of human rights. A staggering one in three women worldwide has experienced physical or sexual violence in their lifetime - caused mostly by an intimate partner.
Domestic violence is not always physical violence. It’s just one of the many ways that one can look at domestic violence. It can be psychological, it can be economic, and it can be sexual. It’s the threat of what may happen. Often, abuse starts as emotional abuse and it becomes physical later. The longer one is staying in an abusive relationship, the greater the physical and emotional toll.
Leaving an abusive situation is difficult; it usually takes a woman three to seven attempts before she is able to extricate herself from a relationship. Many women are frightened of the abuser with good reason. It’s common for abusers to threaten to harm or even kill their partners or children if they attempt to leave. Victims of domestic violence may be trapped in domestic violent situations through isolation, lack of financial resources, fear, shame, or to protect children. In traditional communities, divorced women often feel rejected and ostracized. In order to avoid this stigma, many women prefer to remain in the marriage and endure the abuse.
Many studies have appeared in academic journals looking at the causes of domestic violence. Some people argue that domestic violence is rooted in the patriarchal values of our culture and the gender norms that promote the inferiority of women. Others maintain that domestic violence is caused by individual socioeconomic factors (unemployment or substance abuse) or psychological factors (mental illness). Families in poverty are more likely to experience domestic violence, due to increased stress and conflicts about finances.
Before the 1970s, domestic violence was not considered a crime. It was considered a private family matter, largely beyond the scope of police intervention, except in the most serious cases. In many male-dominated societies, domestic violence is still seen as justified, particularly in cases of suspected infidelity on the part of the woman, and is legally permitted. In some developing countries, practices that subjugate and harm women - such as wife-beating or honor killings - are considered as being part of the natural order of things.
Domestic violence is among the most underreported crimes worldwide for both men and women. Underreporting can be explained by financial dependence, the fear of legal consequences, as well as self-blaming.
Children who grow up in abusive homes are more likely to be abused and have behavioral problems than other children. Whether or not children are physically abused, they often suffer emotional and psychological trauma from living in homes where their fathers abuse their mothers. As adults, they’re more likely to become abusers or think that abuse is a normal part of relationships. Research also indicates that the more corporal punishment children receive, the more likely they are as adults to act violently towards other family members.
Ügyes. :) Amúgy, ha beírod a címet idézőjelek közé, és utánabiggyeszted, hogy scribd, a második találat kihozza (nekem legalábbis).
Family 3 - Interview
- Being a successful career woman, a wife, and a mother is a demanding task: does this challenge hold true for you as well?
- Well, I have learned some valuable lessons over the past 16 years about maintaining stability between private life with my husband and two sons, and my career as I have taken on executive roles at various tech companies. But I can't claim to have perfected the balancing act.
- What have you learned through these years?
- First of all, you have to create realistic expectations and communicate them. Saying yes to every work and personal event is an impossible undertaking. If you don't set realistic expectations for yourself, you'll end up feeling guilty and unmotivated. Nobody can do it all.
- So, prioritization is key, is that what you are saying?
- Yes, as well as communication and transparency. You have to get your family, co-workers, and manager on the same page and get their buy-in. This also creates a support system of people who will help you reach those goals.
- The culture of the company is very important when it comes to finding a healthy balance in professional life. Is it something to consider when you join a new organization?
- Absolutely. If my team members and I are accomplishing what's expected, having flexibility from our employer to prioritize family life when we need to, only breeds higher productivity and dedication to our work and the company.
- What are the things you can do to create a supportive culture?
- I believe family comes first, and I make sure my team knows that I want to build an atmosphere where people can talk about their lives outside of work. This includes making time to share the challenges and successes of raising a family, or even training for a marathon. Similarly, I talk to my family about accomplishments and struggles at work so they feel involved and see another side of my career beyond watching me pack for yet another business trip.
- Have you ever experienced stigmas and challenges in the male-dominated tech industry?
- Not really. It's extremely difficult for male executives, too, to balance work and family, but with prioritization, communication, and transparency, it can be achieved. I hope that millennial women feel confident in their own abilities, both at home and in the work-place. When it comes to female leaders, women like me don't have to be the exception - together we can be the rule.
- Still, women are significantly underrepresented in government and academic positions.
What could be done about this?
- We all know that inflexible schedules, unrelenting travel, and constant pressure to be in the office are common features of these jobs. But it's possible to cope with if you marry the right person. Women can have high-powered careers as long as their husbands or partners are willing to share the parenting load equally.
Éés - questions for discussion:
l. What are some bad and good things about being an only child?
2. What are the practical advantages or disadvantages of being married?
3. When is the right time for marriage?
4. What are the benefits of arranged marriages?
5. What do you think about polygamy?
6. How does one handle conflict in a marriage?
7. What are the leading causes of divorce?
8. What led to the erosion of traditional values of family?
9. Are parents of adopted kids just as happy as parents with biological kids?
10. What would you do if you knew there was domestic violence in the house next to yours?
11. Is there much education about domestic violence in your country?
12. Why do you think victims of domestic violence stay in the relationship for so long?
13. Why do people protect their abusers?
14. Is it feasible for a woman to combine the roles of a mother, a wife, and a homemaker with a professional career without any external help?
15. Have you or someone you know, ever faced gender discrimination at work?
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