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Fentiek helyett pa must és a have to az így van:
must expresses obligation imposed by the speaker:
MOTHER: You must wipe your feet when you come in. have to expresses external obligation:
SMALL Ben : / have to tape my feet every time I come in. B Second person examples
1 Speaker's authority
MOTHER: You must wear a dress tonight. You can't go to the opera
in those dreadful jeans
EMPLOYER: You must use a dictionary. I'm tired of correcting your
DOCTOR: You must cut down on your smoking,
2 External authority
You have to wear uniform on duty, don't you? You have to train very hard for these big matches, I suppose You 'II have to get up earlier when you start work, won't you ?
You'll have to cross the line by the footbridge.
C Third person examples
Here must is chiefly used in written orders or instructions:
R AILWAY COMPANY : Passengers must cross the line by the footbridge.
OFFICE MANAGER: Staff must be at their desks by 9.00.
REGULATION: A trailer must have two rear lamps. When we are merely stating or commenting on another person's obligations we use have to:
In this office even the senior staff have to be at then desks by 9 00.
She has to make her children 's clothes. She can't afford to buy them.
They'll have to send a diver down to examine the hull.
Tf we used must instead of have to above it might imply that the peaker had authority to order these actions. But must may be used when the speaker approves of an obligation:
A driver who has knocked someone down must stop (The speaker
thinks it is the driver's duty to stop.) Or when the speaker feels strongly:
Something must be done to stop these accidents.
D First person examples
In the first person the difference between must and have to is less important and very often either form is possible:
TYPIST: / must/will have to buy a dictionary.
PATIENT: / must/have to/will have to cut down on my smoking But have to is better for habits:
/ have to take two of these pills a day
and must is better when the obligations are urgent or seem important to the speaker:
I must tell you about a dream I had last night.
Before we do anything I must find my cheque book.
E Some other examples (all persons)
You must come and see us some time. (This is quite a usual way of
expressing a casual invitation.)
The children have to play in the street till their parents come home.
This sort of thing must stop! (The speaker either has authority or
feels very strongly about it.)
You must write to your uncle and thank him for his nice present.
If there are no taxis we'll have to walk.
If your father was a poor man you'd have to work.
We have to walk our dog twice a day.
NOTICE IN SHOP WINDOW Closing down sale! Everything must go!
F Affirmative obligations in the past: had to
Here the distinction between the speaker's authority and external authority cannot be expressed and there is only one form, had to:
7 ran out of money and had to borrow from Tom.
You had to pay duty on that, I suppose?
There were no buses so he had to walk.
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